Od kultury władzy do kultury uzasadniania. Doświadczenia południowoafrykańskie
FROM THE CULTURE OF AUTHORITY TO THE CULTURE OF JUSTIFICATION. SOUTH AFRICAN EXPERIENCES
The article focuses on gradual shift from the culture of authority to the culture of justification in South Africa. In culture of authority, justification for action is provided mainly at the stage of assigning authority and once authority has been assigned, the authorized body needs to offer little justification for its specific decisions. In aculture of justification even after authority has been assigned, the authorized body must still provide justification for all of its decisions. The culture of justification is associated with the expansive jurisdiction for the South African Constitutional Court. If proportionality is essentially arequirement of justification it is worthy to focus on The South African Constitutional Court, which has developed original proportionality test. This article examines the application of the test in order to evaluate the progress toward asociety based on human dignity, equality, and freedom. This evaluation is needed not only for South Africa but also for those states which struggle with infringement of the rule of law.