• Ideał obywatela w świetle stasimonu pierwszego Antygony Sofoklesa i Protagorasa Platona

Ideał obywatela w świetle stasimonu pierwszego Antygony Sofoklesa i Protagorasa Platona

Barbara Bibik
Google Scholar Barbara Bibik
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The ideal of citizen in Sophocles' Ode on man and Plato's Protagoras 


The first stasimon of Sophocles' Antigone often called an Ode on Man is considered to be a praise of human's power. In this ode the dramatist joins in the discussion about the cultural progress and the development of human life, his abilities and political skills, which was held by the great poets and philosophers in Athens at that time. In the human achievements and success in many fields presented in this ode in a different way from this made by Hesiod in his Works and Days, and especially in organization of the ordered society maintained by laws, we can easily perceive the resemblances between this ode and the myth put in Protagoras' mouth in Plato's dialogue. Considering that this improvement is due entirely to man's own efforts, unaided either by divine intervention or by a superhuman teacher, the issues of the proper education and upbringing of a good citizen were very current. And both Sophocles as well as Protagoras take the floor on this issue and touch on the subject of aretē and the question, what the man should be, how he should behave or which standards and principles he should obey in his life, especially in his civil life. For Sophocles as well as for Protagoras, the peak of human achievements is the foundation of polis and the appearance of a man, who is above all a citizen. It seems, that the dramatist and the philosopher wanted to pay attention to necessity of obedience of certain principles, which are binding for everyone in the society and by which everyone should be guided in his life. However, emphasizing the importance of human reason, art and ingenuity, it depends solely on a man and his beliefs, to what degree he would put the principles of aretē into effect in his life.


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